Научная литература
booksshare.net -> Добавить материал -> Лингвистика -> Поуви Дж. -> "Говорите правильно по-английски " -> 50

Говорите правильно по-английски - Поуви Дж.

Поуви Дж. Говорите правильно по-английски — М.: Высшая школа, 1984. — 152 c.
Скачать (прямая ссылка): govoritepoenglishtru1984.djvu
Предыдущая << 1 .. 44 45 46 47 48 49 < 50 > 51 52 53 54 55 56 .. 59 >> Следующая

4. Ann used to play the piano very well in her youth. Энн хорошо играла на рояле в молодости.

5. Mother used to read us a story every night before we went to bed.

Мама нам каждый вечер читала сказку перед сном.

6. There used to be some old wooden houses here. Здесь когда-то стояли старые деревянные дома.

As already mentioned, the present tense of use (meaning "have as one's habit") has become archaic and no longer occurs. Therefore such sentences as */ use to get up at 8 o'clock are now incorrect. Even worse are sentences of the type */ am used to get up at 8 o'clock, which are a mixture of used to with the infinitive and to be used to with the gerund. (See below.)

Repeated or habitual action in the present is expressed by the present indefinite tense.

eg 11. I get up at 8 o'clock.

12. She goes to see her mother on Sundays.

These sentences imply regularity, repetition. The habitual aspect may be emphasized by adverbial modifiers such as usually, generally, as a rule, or by the expressions to be in the habit of, to have a habit of.

eg 13. I usually I generally get up at 8 o'clock.

14. We go skiing on Sundays as a rule.

яи і ^s ^n ^e habit\ of ringing me up at about

15. bhe ^ Iias a JiaJjit j one o'clock in the morning.

128 Another aspect of used to with the infinitive which sometimes causes difficulty is the formation of the interrogative and negative. The traditional way is without do, like the anomalous (or special) finites.

eg 16. Where used they to live?

17. January 1st used not to be a public holiday in England.

18. You used to wear your hair long, use(d)n't you?

However, there is a growing tendency to treat use as a normal finite and say, for example:

19. He didn't use(d) to smoke as much as he does now.

20. He used to smoke, didn't he?

21. — There used to be an old apple tree in the garden.

-Oh9 did there?

22. Did you use(d) to climb the old apple tree in the garden?

II. "Used" as a past participle with adjectival function — followed by the preposition to and either a noun, pronoun or gerund.

Used to here means "accustomed to" and is introduced by the verb to be9 to get or, less often, by some other link verb such as to become or to grow. Any tense may be used, as required by the situation.

eg 1.1 was born here, so I'm used to the climate.

2. I don't mind the cold because I'm used to it.

3. She isn't used to getting up early.

4. He found the job very tiring at first, because he wasn't used to hard work.

5. —I don't like the new system of paying bus fares.

— Don't worry. You'll soon get used to it.

— Well9 they say one can get used to anything.

6. I didn't like the district at first but now I'm getting used to it.

7. When they first moved in, the traffic kept them awake at night, but they gradually got used to it.

The distinction between get used to and be used to is that get denotes a change of state, a process, whereas be denotes the state achieved as a result (see p. 60). Here are some more examples to illustrate the distinction.

129 — get used to

8. It took English people a long time to get used to decimal currency.

9. She was just getting used to the new district when they moved again.

10. I haven't got used to living in the suburbs yet.

11. It takes a bit of getting used to.

This is an idiom meaning that something is rather difficult to become accustomed to.

— be used to

12. Vm used to the climate.

13. He was used to getting up early.

14. They quarrelled constantly about money, because she had been used to a much higher standard of living before their marriage.

It is clear from these examples, and those quoted earlier (nos. 1-7) that there is no justification for saying that привык always, or even usually corresponds to got used to. При-вык(ла/ли) is the correct translation not only of got used to (sentence 7) but also of am/is/are/was/were used to (sentences 1-4, 12, 13). The sentence Я привык(ла) has to be translated in various ways, in accordance with the principles outlined above. The possible translations are:

a. Vm used to it. — state in the present

b. I was used to it. — state in the past

c. I got used to it. — change of state in the past

d. I've got used to it. — completion of change, with refer-

ence to the present

e. Vd got used to it. — completion of change with refer-

ence to the past

In practice, situations requiring the first and second translations occur more often than those where the others are appropriate. Such sentences as I got used to it, with no adverbial modifier or other reference to the past, are comparatively rare. When they do occur, the reference to the past is provided by the context.

eg 15. —I didn't like my new job at first. Everything seemed so difficult. I was in such a state that I even thought of leaving.

— And what happened in the end?

— I (gradually) got used to it.

130 As for the perfect tenses, these occur in such sentences as:
Предыдущая << 1 .. 44 45 46 47 48 49 < 50 > 51 52 53 54 55 56 .. 59 >> Следующая



Есть, чем поделиться? Отправьте
Авторские права © 2009 BooksShare.
Все права защищены.
Rambler's Top100