Научная литература
booksshare.net -> Добавить материал -> Лингвистика -> Поуви Дж. -> "Говорите правильно по-английски " -> 45

Говорите правильно по-английски - Поуви Дж.

Поуви Дж. Говорите правильно по-английски — М.: Высшая школа, 1984. — 152 c.
Скачать (прямая ссылка): govoritepoenglishtru1984.djvu
Предыдущая << 1 .. 39 40 41 42 43 44 < 45 > 46 47 48 49 50 51 .. 59 >> Следующая

Such weather is rare in Leningrad. (formal) This/That kind of weather is rare in Leningrad.

(semi-formal, informal) Weather like this/that is rare in Leningrad. (informal)

І Such films are not suitable for children, (formal) Films of that kind!sort are not suitable... (semi-formal) Films like that are not suitable... (informal)

Note. The ungrammatical form these/those kind/sort of can also be heard in conversation, even among educated people.

Those kind/sort of films are not suitable for children.

10. — There are courses for teachers to improve their qualifications.

we have such courses, too. (formal) we have courses like that у too. (semi-formal, informal)

we have those kind of courses too. (informal)


1 The general tendency is for this to be used with reference to things near or about to be mentioned, and that for things further away, or which have just been mentioned.

115 The above examples illustrate the stylistic limitations of such in a generic sense. It occurs mainly in lectures, formal discussions and particularly in written English, for example, in textbooks, newspapers and fiction. Here is an example from fiction ("Anglo-Saxon Attitudes" by Angus Wilson).

11. Gerald Middleton was a man of mildly but persistently depressive temperament. Such men are not at their best at breakfast, nor is the week before Christmas their happiest time.

Occasionally such is used deliberately in conversation to create a formal, and sometimes cold, atmosphere:

12. I will not tolerate such behaviour.

On the whole, however, such in a generic sense should be avoided in conversation and informal writing, and one of the alternatives with this/that used instead, as illustrated above.

In sentences where the type is defined in a following subordinate clause, the indefinite article is used, both in formal and informal style.

eg 13. He read about a sea where you cannot drown, (такое море, где нельзя утонуть) 14. I bought а wollen material which does not crease. (такой шерстяной материал, который не мнётся)

In the plural there is naturally no article.

eg 15. There were moments when I thought he'd forgotten his lines.

(такие моменты, когда мне казалось, что он забыл свою роль)

In this type of sentence the generic element is weaker.

Such does not usually occur with reference to a particular case, even in formal style and should not therefore be used to translate такой in such cases. Instead an article or a demonstrative pronoun should be used, as follows: (1) the definite article;

eg 16. В русском (языке) есть такое слово угостить. In Russian there is the word uUgostif. 17. Мне попалось в газете такое выражение "to get the sack". Что оно значит?

/ came across the expression "to get the sack" in a newspaper. What does it mean?

116 18. У русских есть такой обычай: перед дальней дорогой обязательно на минуточку присесть. The Russians have the custom of sitting down for a minute before a long journey.

It is true that такой is not essential in all sentences of this type (for example, in sentences 16 and 17 above) but its use is characteristic of colloquial style and Russian speakers tend to include such in English sentences by analogy.

(2) the indefinite article;

eg 19. Был такой проект — построить в этом месте станцию метро.

There was a plan to build a metro station here/there.

Такой in this type of sentence, as in examples 16 and 17 above, is also superfluous and may be omitted.

If a name is given, called is generally included in English.

eg 20. Есть такое общество «Знание».

There's an association called iiZnaniye". 21. У вас есть такой студент Кузнецов? Have you got a student called Kuznetsov?

(3) thislthat — when the particular instance is given in a separate clause or sentence. This (pi. these) is used when the instance follows, that (pi. those) when it has already been given, at least in conversation.

eg 22. Возьмем такой пример.

LeVs take this example. (The example follows)

23. Сложилась такая ситуация.

This was the situation. (A description of the situation follows)

24. Мне нравится такая идея. I like that idea.

25. В таком случае я подожду до завтра. In that case ГIl wait till tomorrow.

In formal style, however, especially in written English, this and these are often used with reference to something already mentioned.

eg 26. (After the meaning of a word has been explained) This word is often used in the press. 27. (After some experiments have been described)

These experiments produced some interesting results.

117 With forward reference the following is common.

eg 28. Let us consider the following example.

29. Answer the following questions.

In some Russian sentences the generic and particular elements merge.

eg 30. Мы не можем согласиться на такие условия.

Неге такие may be interpreted as referring to conditions of a certain type and/or to particular conditions already mentioned. It may also be considered to have an intensifying element, implying such unfavourable conditions. In English it is necessary to choose the dominant idea, using such to express a generic meaning (formal style) with potential intensifying effect, and those if referring to particular conditions already mentioned:
Предыдущая << 1 .. 39 40 41 42 43 44 < 45 > 46 47 48 49 50 51 .. 59 >> Следующая



Есть, чем поделиться? Отправьте
Авторские права © 2009 BooksShare.
Все права защищены.
Rambler's Top100