Научная литература
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Говорите правильно по-английски - Поуви Дж.

Поуви Дж. Говорите правильно по-английски — М.: Высшая школа, 1984. — 152 c.
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eg 6. — Where's John? — At work.

_ TT771 2 J ' J J. f tO WOrk?

7. What time do you get j home from work?

8. I met him on the way to work.

However, work does not necessarily denote something for which one is paid, as illustrated by the following examples.

9. There's always a lot of work to be done in the gar-den.

10. He said that shopping and cooking was women's work.

It is also used of schoolchildren and students.

eg 11. Peter's work has improved this term. 12. Helen hasn't done much work lately.

Remember that work is uncountable here, too. Speaking of an exercise, composition, etc. written by a schoolchild or student, we use a piece of work, or simply work, or specify the type.

Ia good piece of work. a good translation!composition, etc. good work.

14. Give your work/translations/compositions/exercises in.

15. You have only done two pieces of (written) work this term.

In the case of written tests and examinations, we use paper.

eg 16. Give your papers in now, please. 17. Have you marked the (exam) papers?

A work (pi. works) means "something created by an artist (a book, picture, piece of music, etc.)", "a work of art".

eg 18. This is one of Khrennikov's latest works.

19. Some people say that the picture is a work of genius.

143 Job is a countable noun which formerly meant only some particular piece of work or a task which has to be done, usually something practical and not very large, for example, cleaning the windows or mowing the lawn or doing some minor repairs. Job is still used in this sense.

eg 20. I've got a lot of jobs to do (in the house).

21. Vd like you to do a little job for me. Would you mind wiping these glasses?

One may do jobs oneself or pay someone else to do them. An odd job man is one who dees various jobs in the house and garden.

Nowadays, however, job is increasingly used to denote regular, paid employment (instead of post, position or situation).

00 ,, ,. r f job as a teacher. eg 22. I ve applied for a ( \eaching job.

23. She got a job as a secretary when she left college.

24. It's a very interesting job.

25. He lost his job.

26. He's looking for a job.

27. I want to change my job.

28. She's constantly changing jobs.

Note. Avoid using several jobs as in * She's changed several jobs.

29. A lot of jobs are advertised in newspapers.

30. A woman has to do her job and run the house as well.

In some sentences job and work are interchangeable, job being countable and work uncountable.

eg 31. My job !work is very interesting/boring/tiring, etc.

32. I enjoy my job/work.

33. He's looking for {


In sentences where only a countable noun is appropriate, however, only job is possible, for example, in sentences 22, 25 and 27-30 above.

This use of job is still considered to be colloquial by some people but it is spreading fast to more formal style. It is increasingly used in the mass media, in such sentences as:

34. The Liverpool factory will close next month, with the loss of 2,000 jobs.

35. The government promised to create more jobs.

144 Post is still preferred to Job in formal style with reference to professional people (that is, teachers, doctors, lawyers and others with a degree or similar qualification).

eg 36. The post of chief librarian has become vacant.

37. He applied for a teaching post.

(Cf. example 22 above.)

The stylistic distinction between post and job can be well illustrated by the following sentences from "The Word Child" by Iris Murdoch. The first is taken from the narrative and the second from a dialogue (about the same situation):

38. I knew that my chances of getting an academic post, at my age and with my record, were nil.

39. — I can't get a university job now, Crystal, that's just a dream.

Position is used in a similar but somewhat wider sense, not being confined to professional people. It is also formal.

eg 40. He applied for the position of hotel manager.

Situation was formerly used to denote a position as a domestic servant or similar, but is now archaic except in the expressions SITUATIONS VACANT and SITUATIONS WANTED. These are printed in newspapers at the top of columns containing advertisements for jobs available and requests for jobs respectively. These columns do not cover all types of occupation but only manual, clerical, secretarial, domestic work, or other work not requiring advanced training. Professional posts are advertised under the heading APPOINTMENTS.

Exercise 1. Fill in the blanks with work, job, post, position or situation (sg. or pi.).

1. What's his ... ? 2. Over three million people are now out of . . . in Britain. 3. I can't stop now. I've got too much . . . to do. 4. Applications for the ... of chief engineer must be received by March 31st. 5. I must stay at home this evening and do all my . . . — ironing, mending, and so on. 6. If you're looking for a . . . as a typist why don't you read the advertisements in the evening paper, under . . . VACANT? 7. I've been offered a . . . with a shipping company. 8. A lot of married women have . . . nowadays. 9. The programme included several new . . . by British composers. 10. I can't tell you your marks because I haven't marked your . . . yet.
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