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Говорите правильно по-английски - Поуви Дж.

Поуви Дж. Говорите правильно по-английски — М.: Высшая школа, 1984. — 152 c.
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Remember that shop has another meaning, too: "a workshop or department of a factory" (цех). It has this meaning in the following expressions:

— shop floor (in the context of industry)

eg 4. There is a lot dissatisfaction on the shop floor.

— shop steward — member of a trade union elected by his fellow-workers to represent them on the local committee

— closed shop — department of a factory or, by extension, other place of work where membership of a trade union is compulsory. This expression may also be used more widely., with reference to a whole industry or profession.

eg 5. The Tory government declared its opposition to closed shops.

Exercise. Fill in the blanks with shop(s) or store(s).

1. Is there a ... near here? 2. They went to a furniture ... to look for a new dining table. 3. You'll probably find a wider choice in one of the big ... . 4. She works in a ... . 5. —What time do the ... open in England? — Usually at nine o'clock. 6. She did most of her shopping at a supermarket in the centre but when she ran out of something unexpectedly she went to the general ... on the corner. 7. — Are you in favour of the closed ...? 8. Some streets in London have mainly one kind of ... . For example, Bond Street has a lot of jewellers' ... and Charing Cross Road is full of book ... . 9. Small ... often cannot compete with supermarkets and department ... and go out of business. 10. The 1960s saw the rise of the boutique [bu:'ti:k], a small ... selling fashionable clothes at moderate prices in an informal atmosphere.

3. He owns

chain of supermarkets!restaurants!garages.

supermarket !restaurant chain.

(=among the workers)

110 Some, A Few, Several

The distinction between some and any has been dealt with by various writers but little attention seems to have-been paid to the use of some in contrast to a few or several.

There are sentences where either some, a few or several can be used to mean an indefinite number (with countable nouns).

eg 1. I bought some/a few !several books today.

2. After dinner he wrote some/a few/several letters.

3. There are some/a few/several shops in this street.

4. She invited some/a few/several of her colleagues to the party.

5. Some!A few/Several people complained about the delay.

6. We had to wait for some/a few/several hours.

7. They asked the lecturer some/a few/several questions.

Some is the most neutral here, the least specific. It simply means more than two, and although the number implied is not usually large, this is not specified. In many cases it is the plural form of the indefinite article or the pronoun or numeral one.

eg 5. I bought {

some books } today•

n I A child was 1 , . . ,, ,

\ Some children were } Р1аУ1Пё in the Sarden-

10. She invited one/some of her colleagues.

Here all the stress falls on the following noun and some is in its weak form [sam], except when functioning as a pronoun (example 10).

The strong form of some [sAm] has other uses, too. Firstly, it may denote a considerable amount or number, or at least more than one would expect.

eg 11. I shall be away for some time. (=rather a long time)

12. The village was some distance from the railway station.

13. They drove some miles out of their way.

14. It was some days before the news reached them.

This use of some seems to be confined to nouns denoting distance or length of time (or other units of measurement).

Ill It should also be mentioned that several is more common in this type of sentence in non-formal style (with countable nouns). (See below.)

Secondly, it may be used in contrast to other(s), the rest or all.

eg 15. Some children learn to read very quickly. 16. — Did you do all the exercises? — No, only some of them.

Thirdly, it has an adverbial use, meaning about, approximately.

eg 17. That was some twenty years ago. 18. There were some fifteen people there.

However, this is not common and confined to formal style.

A few and several are more specific than the weak form of some, since they denote a small number rather than simply an indefinite number. The difference between them lies in their emphasis. A few means simply a small number (unless modified by only or some other word), whereas several implies that the number, although small, is larger than one might expect in the circumstances. Compare the following sentences:

19a) After dinner I wrote some letters.

(How many is not important; all the emphasis is on letters.)

b) After dinner I wrote a few letters.

(A small number is specified, although not stressed.)

c) After dinner I wrote several letters.

(More than you might expect, more than usual, although not many.) 20a) She invited some of her colleagues.

b) She invited a few of her colleagues.

c) She invited several of her colleagues.

A few hardly differs from some in such sentences and the two are practically interchangeable. However, there are cases where a few is preferable to some.
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