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Говорите правильно по-английски - Поуви Дж.

Поуви Дж. Говорите правильно по-английски — М.: Высшая школа, 1984. — 152 c.
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Exercise 2. Fill in the blanks with British, English or England.

1. 10, Downing Street is the residence of the ... Prime Minister. 2. —Is he a ... citizen? 3. —Do you like ... food? 4. Kissing under the mistletoe is an old ... custom. 5. The ... team reached the final in the World Cup. 6. According to ... law, all firearms must be registered. 7. —You must get a visa from the ... embassy. 8. The ... educational system often seems complicated to foreigners. 9. He served in the ... army for many years. 10. — I went to an exhibition of ... portrait-painting in the eighteenth century. 11. Not everyone appreciates ... humour. 12. The ... flag is called the Union Jack. 13.—What do you know about the ... character? 14. The Confederation of ... Industry is a body representing all employers in the industrial sphere.

By All Means, Certainly, Definitely, Of Course, Surely

By all means can be used to give permission in an emphatic way, in formal style.

eg L — May I come to your lecture tomorrow?

— By all means or: — Yesi by all means.

2. — By all means ask me if you have any questions.

Remember that this phrase is (1) emphatic, (2) confined to formal style, and is therefore not often used. In reply to

27 requests (as in example 1) certainly is more common (see below) and in sentences such as no. 2, do or, for example, be sure to or You are welcome to.

eg 3. Do

ask me if you have any questions.

Be sure to You're welcome to

Certainly is the usual way of giving permission or expressing willingness in formal or semi-formal style.

eg 4. —Will you excuse me for a moment? — Certainly.

5. — Would you please give this letter to Mr Smith? — Certainly or: — Yes9 certainly.

Note that certainly is pronounced with a high fall. (Avoid a rise-fall here.)

Certainly is also used in the sense of "without doubt", eg 6. The team will certainly lose if Reece doesn't play.

7. You'll certainly regret it.

8. He certainly didn't tell me anything about it.

Here certainly is not confined to formal or semi-formal style, although in colloquial style it is often replaced by definitely. (See below.)

On the whole certainly should be avoided when answering a question in the affirmative or expressing agreement with some statement.

eg 9. — Does the river freeze in winter? 10. — I hear they're building a new hotel there. IL — The buses are very crowded at this time of day.

In such cases it is usually best to say:

In example 11 the question tag aren't they could be added: — (Yes9) they are, aren't they?

Although certainly alone is not an appropriate response to such statements, it may be used in a sentence expressing agreement.

— The buses are very crowded at this time of day.

— They ,certainly ^are.

V / u dc

Yes> \ they

it does. they are.

28 Definitely, like certainly, is used to mean "without doubt". In this sense it is more common than certainly, at least in conversation.

eg 12. — Are you going to the lecture?

— (Yesi) definitely.

13. — I shall definitely be there by ten o'clock.

14. — She definitely locked the cupboard. I saw her.

When definitely refers to the future (as in examples 12 and 13) it corresponds to the Russian точно or обязательно. In sentences like no. 14 definitely can be translated only by точно.

Of course has various uses, one of them being an expression of willingness to do something requested. It is characteristic of informal style, in contrast to certainly, which is used in response to requests in formal and semi-formal style. (See above.)

eg 15. (Child to parent, brother or sister)

— Will you help me with my homework?

— Of course or: — Yesi of course.

16. (One friend to another)

— Can you lend me a pound till Saturday?

— Of course or: — Yes, of course.

Of course is also used in the sense of "without doubt". Here it differs from certainly and definitely in that it is more emphatic, more emotional (besides being more colloquial than certainly), implying that something cannot be questioned.

eg 17. — Are you going to the lecture?

— (Yes,) of course.

18. — Of course I told him.

If strongly stressed, of course may imply that the question need not have been asked, and therefore sound rude.

In other cases of course is weaker, and means the same as naturally.

eg. 19. — Vve been invited but of course I shan't go.

20. — John told me about it, of course.

Surely is used in American English to express willingness to do something requested (British English certainly or of course).

eg 21. — Will you mail this letter for me?

— Surely.

29 In British English, however, surely, although close to certainly, is used in a different way, as illustrated by the following examples:

22. — Surely you've heard of him. He's one of the most well-known modern poets.

( = 1 cannot believe that you haven't heard of him.)

23. — He'll remember to phone us, surely. He knows we shall be worried.

24. — Surely you haven't forgotten Ilwse words already.
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