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Говорите правильно по-английски - Поуви Дж.

Поуви Дж. Говорите правильно по-английски — М.: Высшая школа, 1984. — 152 c.
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24 Britain, Great Britain, England; British, English

Britain is the name of the whole country, which consists of England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland.

Great Britain includes England, Wales and Scotland, but not Northern Ireland.

The most official name of the state is in fact the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, generally abbreviated to the United Kingdom or designated by the initials U.K. (The U.K.)

The British Isles is a geographical name, denoting the whole group of islands, and thus including all of Ireland.

The relation between these names can be seen from the following table:

England Wales [ Scotland J Northern Ireland

Great Britain

Britain or the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland {the U.K.)




The Irish Republic

The corresponding adjectives are as follows: England — English Wales —Welsh

Scotland — Scottish — the most widely-used form

Sometimes Scotch, as in Scotch whisky and Scotch pancakes, or Scots, as in Scots pine.

Northern Ireland — Northern Irish Great Britain Britain

j- — British

The United Kingdom (U. K-) — there is no corresponding adjective

The words United Kingdom or the initials U. K- may be used attributively:

( United Kingdom Ijf ,. eg the { UK I delegation

Great Britain is sometimes used in practically the same sense as Britain, to denote the whole country, but this is not to be recommended on the whole. Note that both Great Britain and Britain are officially translated into Russian as Великобритания, although some Soviet writers use Британия as a translation of Britain.

25 The fact that in Russian it is acceptable to use Англия instead of Великобритания in non-formal style should not lead Russian speakers to use England instead of (Great) Britain. For example, a person who was born in Glasgow will be offended if he is told that he comes from England or is described as an Englishman. In fact he comes from Scotland, or (Great) Britain. With people who really come from England, the distinction between England/English and Britain/British is not so important in such cases. We may say that a person born in London or Bristol or Manchester comes from England or from (Great) Britain. Here England may be preferred because Britain sounds more formal.

With reference to the whole country, however, only Britain/British (or the United Kingdom) should be used. Here are some expressions with the adjective British:

— the British government

Prime Minister army

embassy, ambassador

— a British citizen, British citizenship

— a British passport

— British industry/agriculture

There are some cases where British is not appropriate because there is not a single system for the whole of Britain. This applies in particular to education and law, where Scotland and Northern Ireland, which were joined much later than Wales, have their own systems. Thus we say:

— the educational system of England and Wales

The English educational system is also used for convenience, to avoid the clumsy English and Welsh educational system.

J educational system of Scotland/Northern Ireland the \ Scottish/Northern Irish educational system

— the English/Scottish/Northern Irish legal system

— English/Scottish/Northern Irish law

Although there are some customs which are common to all parts of Britain, or at least Great Britain, many others are restricted mainly to one part of the country. Thus we often speak of an (old) English/Welsh/Scottish/Irish1 custom. With reference to food (traditional dishes, etc.), English/Welsh, etc. is more common, and also when talking

і Because of its common descent and culture, Ireland is treated as a whole in such cases.

26 about national character (the Welsh, Scots and Irish, unlike the English, are Celts). Humour, too, is English or Welsh or Scottish or Irish, not British. As for art, it can be either EnglishlWelshIScoitishlIrish or British, depending on whether artists from one part of the country or from the whole country are included.

In sport, there is a difference between the British team, (representing the whole of Britain, or sometimes Great Britain) and the England team (representing England only). Note the use of England here. English team may mean simply a team of Englishmen, not necessarily representing England as a whole.

Exercise 1. Fill in the blanks with Britain, the United Kingdom or England and any other necessary words.

1. The official name of the whole country is ... . 2. Great Britain consists of ... . 3. Scotland had four universities by the 16th century, whereas ... still had only two. 4. The Australian Prime Minister is on an official visit to ... . 5. —I've bought a book called "The Educational System of ... and Wales." 6. Unemployment is much higher in Northern Ireland than in ... as a whole. 7. He was born in Wales, but his parents moved to ... when he was only five. 8. The Bank of Scotland prints its own banknotes but they are accepted all over ... . 9. Many Indian doctors now work in ... . 10. —Last year I went to ... on a language course. (The course was held in Cambridge.)
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