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Сасанидские геммы - Борисов А.Я.

Борисов А.Я., Луконин В.Г. Сасанидские геммы — Ленинград, 1963. — 222 c.
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5) Знак ’ читается так же, как S, S.
Предлагаемый очерк сасанидской «лапидарной» палеографии позволяет датировать геммы лишь в пределах века. Более дробная датировка — дело будущего.
Основной путь исследовании в этом направлении мог бы заключаться в комплексном изучении стиля и характера изображений, вырезанных на геммах, и характера начертания знаков надписей на них. Вряд ли можно ожидать, что количество эпиграфических памятников (особенно в части наскальных надписей и надписей па произведениях торевтики) сильно увеличится. Вряд ли можно расчитывать и на то, что более детальная разработка палеографии монетных легенд даст впоследствие возможность составить такие палеографические таблицы, которые позволили бы датировать надписи «лапидарного стиля» более узким промежутком времени. По-видимому, и в дальнейшем для того, чтобы уточнить палеографию, необходимо будет сравнивать все виды «лапидарной палеографии». И в этом отношении более точные датировки гемм по стилю могут приобрести решающее значение.
5 Сасанидские геммы
A collection of Sassanian seals at the State Hermitage comprises over 800 specimens and apparently ranks among the richest in the world. Based on the collection of Catherine II, it was considerably enlarged during the XIX—XX centuries by the incorporation of several collections of some archaeologists and antiquarians.
The most important collections were assembled in the Central Asia (collections of B. N. Kas-talsky and N. I. Veselovsky), Caucasus (collection of К. I. Olshevsky) and Iran (collections of L. A. Petrovsky, Tcherkassov, Muller, Ivanov) x. The preliminary works for the publication of the Catalogue Raisonne of Sassanian seals were commenced over 30 years ago and the articles by К. V. Trever («Amethyst with a Portrait of Varahran I», «Gopatshah — a Shepherd-Shah» and others) and A. .T. Borisov (Notes on Epigraphy) 2 were the main stages of these preparations.
* *
The modern Iranistics considers the Sassanian seals as a most valuable source of knowledge on history and culture of Iran of the Sassanian period. However the use of this source is considerably hampered by the lack of definite dating in the majority of the seals. To solve the problem of their accurate attribution there were selected for the purpose the seals with «official portraits» of Sassanian and Iranian ministers, priests and statesmen. By the «official portrait» the author implies a portrait of shah, minister or priest, bearing the emblems of authority (head-dresses of definite forms, insignia thereupon, jewels, costumes, etc.).
I he author considered such seals to be most suitable for the study, as in his opinion the «Sassanian official portrait» very clearly and distinctly reflects the political and ideological concepts of the Sassanian monarchs. This fact affords grounds for a comparative study of written sources and art objects, their cross-checking and verification. Besides, the inscriptions on the seals with official portraits, being more detailed, not infrequently mention the titles of officials which enabled the author to compare these inscriptions with written sources (espe-
tv ^°Г ,d®tails s®e «List of Collectors and Antiquarians» (pp. 217). Nos indicated in the list correspond to those of the seals in the Catalogue.
2 For accurate bibliographic data see «Abreviations» (p. 220).
cially with early Sassanian rock inscriptions) and to obtain some material sufficient for estimating the paleographic data.
For a detailed description of our method of dating the Sassanian seals, we refer the reader to the author s work «Iran during the Epoch of the First Sassanids» (L., 1961, pp. 39—55 in Russian). Briefly the method consists in the following: ’
1. Selection of group of engraved stones having common iconographic portrait characteristics.
2. Identification of similar features on reliefs, coins, silver plates, i. e. on objects which might contribute to dating the selected group of seals.
3. The dates thus reckoned are checked by analyzing the inscriptions on the intaglios and the data obtained are verified by written sources.
4. On the basis of the paleographic study of inscriptions on seals, the paleographic tables of characters have been compiled and compared with tabulated characters provided by coin legends, rock inscriptions, etc.
On the whole the iconography of portraits of the III—IV centuries has the following characteristics:
Head-dresses: several tightly curled locks of hair falling down the shoulders.
Dresses: a kind of «kaftan» pinned with two buckles on the breast.
Kulahs (head-dresses) of two types: resembling a «Phrygian cap» (worn by officials of civil administration); egg-shaped (worn by priests).
A very peculiar style and technique of rendering the breast and shoulders by four rounded depressions *.
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