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Говорите правильно по-английски - Поуви Дж.

Поуви Дж. Говорите правильно по-английски — М.: Высшая школа, 1984. — 152 c.
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It is important to distinguish between get denoting a change of state (meaning "become") and be denoting the state itself, for example, between get tired and be tired. This distinction can be illustrated by the following sentences:

1. I started digging enthusiastically but it was hard work

and I soon got tired.

— change of state in the past, from freshness to tiredness

2. — Would you like to sit down?

— Yes, Гт tired.

— state of tiredness in the present

This distinction tends to be ignored by Russian speakers because such Russian perfective forms as устал, привык and промок are used to denote both a change of state and the state achieved as a result. Thus both I got tired and Гт tired in the above sentences would be translated into Russian as Я устал(а).

Note also that get is characteristic of informal style. In formal style become or grow should be used instead, the choice depending on the following adjective or participle.

eg 3. His strength was unequal to the task and he soon grew tired.

4. He bebame interested in music at an early age.

Sometimes a more specific (and more vivid) expression can be used instead, for example, instead of he got angry, he lost his temper, or, stronger, he flew into a rage\ instead of it was getting dark, darkness was falling.

60 In other cases, however, there is no suitable expression and then the verb to be is used, the perfective idea being conveyed only by the context.

eg 5. When he saw the man running after him he was frightened.

It could be argued that here he was frightened is the passive voice of frighten, although this is questionable. But there is no doubt that they were married in the sentence they were married last year is a passive form. This is preferable in formal style to the colloquial they got married.

II. Get meaning "receive, obtain, acquire, buy"

Here, too, get is confined mainly to informal style.

eg 6. I got a letter from Alan today.

7. You must get permission from the dean first. S. I want to get tickets for uSwan Lake" tomorrow.

In formal style, especially in writing, one of the verbs given in the above heading should be used instead.

eg 9. The next day John received a letter from his parents.

10. Those students who wish to postpone their teaching practice must obtain permission from the sub-dean.

11. As Diana knew that her guests were interested in ballet, she bought tickets for iiSwan Lake".

III. Get denoting movement (<arriving, entering, leaving) Confusion often arises about the use of get to denote

movement, especially as regards:

(a) its relation to come in the sense of arrive.

In some cases either come or get can be used.

eg 12. I came home at six or: I got home at six.

(b) its possible implication of difficulty in entering or leaving.

Sometimes difficulty (for example, an obstacle) is implied by the choice of get.

eg 13. He got into the house and stole some jewellery.

Sometimes there is no implication of difficulty and get means simply enter.

eg 14. He got into the car and drove off.

The stylistic aspect is also important here.

61 The main uses of get to denote movement are as follows: (1) Get followed by to and a noun denoting a place, or by an adverbial such as here/there or home means "arrive (at)", "reach". It is characteristic of colloquial style. Here are some typical examples of such use:

15. — Could you please tell me how to get to the post


16. — Keep straight on until you get to the crossroads.

Then turn right.

17. When they got to the station they found that the last train had gone.

18. I usually get to work about ten to nine.

19. (Host to guests) — Did you have any difficulty (in) getting here?

20. —Be sure to get there on time.

21. —I was exhausted by the time I got home.

Get to is also used by teachers in connection with reading, etc., in such sentences as:

22. When you get to the end of the chapter !exercise put your hands up.

This idea (of arriving, reaching) can sometimes be expressed by come (to) (see p. 35-36). Thus come could replace get in some of the above examples, namely nos. 16, 17, 21 and 22. However, come does not always express clearly enough the idea of completion, of arrival at the destination, and therefore tends to be avoided in such sentences as nos. 18 and 19. Even in those cases where come can be used, get is usually preferred, at least in colloquial style. Another factor which sometimes excludes the use of come is the question of direction. As explained on page 31, come usually denotes movement towards the speaker or centre of attention. Although this often does not apply to come followed by to and a word denoting a place, there are some cases in which the directional factor does make the use of come seem illogical. Two such cases are nos. 15 and 20 above; in both of these sentences the planned direction is away from the place where the speaker is. This consideration, combined with the desire to express clearly the idea of arrival, makes get more suitable than come here. It must be admitted, however, that the operation of the directional factor is not always consistent in the type of sentence we are discussing, and usage plays a certain role in the choice of verb. Students should therefore
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