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История Ливии. XX век - Егорин А.З.

Егорин А.З. История Ливии. XX век — М.: Институт востоковедения РАН, 1999. — 563 c.
ISBN 5-89282-122-6
Скачать (прямая ссылка): istorlivii1999.djvu
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Chapter One deals with the period before the 20th century particulary focusing on Turkish rule and the separatism of Arab Berber's clans and foreign inroads. In this Chapter the author also considers the internal and external factors which shaped the country's evolution, the foreign penetration into Libya and reasons for the rise and spread of a senusit Islamic campaign throughout this country.
Chapters Two, Three, Four and Five deal with the milestones of Libya's national liberation movement in the first half of the 20th century. The author investigates the Italian-Turkish war of 1911-1912 that influenced the upsurge of the resistance movement; the dynamics of this campaign led by Ahmed al-Sherif in the 10s and Omar al-Muhtar in the 20s, as well as its upsurge before and during World War II and after it under British and French rule (1943-1951).
The attainment of independence and the monarchic regime of Idris as-Senussi (1951-1969) are the subject of the author's analysis in the Chapter Six.
Chapters Seven, Eight, Nine and Ten describe the development of the country after the monarchy was overthrown in September 1, 1969: the features of the republican (1969-1977) and "jamahiriyan" stages up to the 90s; the struggle between the forces of conservatism and renewal; and the essentials of Muammar al-Qadhafi's "third"
558
theory and moves to dispence with old institution and to develop a modern society.
Chapter Eleven examines the nation's socio-economic development and appreciable advances it has made on the attainment of independence. It further makes much of the "oil factor" in the economy and social processes during an "oil boom" (up to 1982) and its sharp decline thereafter, which compelled Libyan leaders to rehaul their social and economic programmes.
In Chapter Twelve and Thirteen the author centres his analysis on the country's foreign policy and economic contacts, their priorities and objectives. The author examines how these relations have evolved from fervid radicalism to moderation, both in global and regional relations; influence of UN's sanctions against Libya in the 90s; Libyan and Russian damages as a result of antilibyan international blockade. Libya's heavy dependence on world oil market fluctuations is emphasised further.
Chapter Fourteen highlights 20th century's finish of the Libyan history: liberalization of Qadhadi's regime (since 1987), role of army in the Libyan political life and it's opposition; science, culture and their national features: traditional Berber's elements are still a vibrant force on the Libyan scene. Qadhafi's political ascent of a simple "badawin" to the revolutionary monarch: he is often ridiculed and at the same time he is rather fearless in his revolutionary initiatives. The chapter ends with relations between the two countries, Russia and Libya, as the author sees them.
From the Prof. A.Egorin's point of view the image of Libya in the world in the 20th century is a grotesque distortion of the truth. Some knowledge of the country's history and the Libyan people's struggle against foreign domination in the 20th century is an essential prerequisite for any understanding of how Libyans see themselves and the rest of the world.
This vast desert state as Prof. A.Egorin have summarized even now is one of the most misunderstood countries with its impressive social, cultural, political and economic results have been achieved by Libya on the attainment of full independence.
Actually Libya's struggle against foreign penetration is going on and it reminds the beginning of the 20th century. Libyans with their leaders and with their friends abroad have understood it.
СОДЕРЖАНИЕ
ВВЕДЕНИЕ....................................................................................5
ГЛАВА I
ЛИВИЯ НАКАНУНЕ XX ВЕКА............................................12
1.Реформы Танзимата и усиление арабского
национализма в вилайете Триполи........................................16
2.Вилайет Триполи накануне иностранной экспансии............23
ГЛАВА II
БОРЬБА ПРОТИВ ИТАЛЬЯНСКОГО
ЭСКПАНСИОНИЗМА...........................................................26
1. Итало-турецкая война 1911-1912 гг. и ее последствия..........35
2.Борьба против итальянских захватчиков в
Триполитании и Киренаике (1913-1914 гг.).........................40
3.Первая мировая война и ливийское движение
сопротивления (1914-1918 гт.)................................................46
ГЛАВА III
ЛИВИЯ В ПЕРИОД МЕЖДУ ПЕРВОЙ И ВТОРОЙ
МИРОВЫМИ ВОЙНАМИ....................................................65
1 .Триполитанская республика (1918-1923 гт.)...........................65
2.Борьба ливийских патриотов под руководством
Омара аль-Мухтара (1923-1931 гг.)........................................79
3.Колонизация Ливии фашистской Италией
(1931-1941 гг.)..........................................................................92
ГЛАВА IV
ВТОРАЯ МИРОВАЯ ВОЙНА И ЛИВИЯ.............................97
!.Деятельность ливийской эмиграции........................................98
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